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Hereditary Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis, Type 1

Hereditary Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis, Type 1 (CaOx1) is a genetic disorder that greatly increases the risk for urinary stones composed of calcium oxalate to form within the kidneys or bladder.

Found in

1 in 52 dogs

in our testing

Key Signs

Straining to urinate, Frequent urination, Bloody urine, Urinary obstructions

Age of Onset

0 to 2 yrs

Juvenile onset


Autosomal Recessive

For autosomal recessive disorders, dogs with two copies of the variant are at risk of developing the condition. Dogs with one copy of the variant are considered carriers and are usually not at risk of developing the disorder. However, carriers of some complex variants grouped in this category may be associated with a low risk of developing the disorder. Individuals with one or two copies may pass the disorder-associated variant to their puppies if bred.

Likelihood of the Condition

Moderate likelihood

At risk dogs may show signs of this disease in their lifetime, although some will not develop the condition due to absence of additional risk factors.

What to Do

Here’s how to care for a dog with CaOx1

Partner with your veterinarian to make a plan regarding your dog’s well-being, including any insights provided through genetic testing. If your pet is at risk or is showing signs of this disorder, then the first step is to speak with your veterinarian.

For Veterinarians

Here’s what a vet needs to know about CaOx1

Hereditary Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis, Type 1 is a disorder that is associated with increased risk of urinary calcium oxalate stone formation. Affected dogs will demonstrate clinical signs consistent with urolithiasis. This may range from being asymptomatic to hematuria (bloody urine), dysuria (painful urination), stranguria (straining to pass urine) and pollakiuria (frequent urination). Dogs with urinary stones are also more susceptible to urinary tract infections. And, due to the presence of the stones, affected dogs are at risk of urinary obstruction occurring at the renal pelvis, ureters, or urethra. Blockage of the urinary tract is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate intervention. While the average age of diagnosis is 3 years old, dogs affected by CaOx1 have the potential to develop urinary stones as puppies. And recurrent stone formation is common for affected dogs. There is evidence to suggest the clinical signs are more common in males than in females.

Unlike some urinary stones, calcium oxalate stones cannot be dissolved medically with prescription diets and require either surgical or mechanical removal. Otherwise, this condition can be managed similarly to other urolithiases, including fluid therapy and treating secondary urinary tract infections. It is common for calcium oxalate urinary stones to recur in affected dogs, though the risk for stone formation can be decreased by dietary management after initial surgical or mechanical removal of the stones. Thus, lifelong management with diet and monitoring for signs of urinary tract infection or blockage should be emphasized to owners.

For Breeders

Planning to breed a dog with this genetic variant?

There are many responsibilities to consider when breeding dogs. Regardless of test results it is important that your dog is in good general health and that you are in a position to care for the puppies if new responsible owners are not found. For first time or novice breeders, advice can be found at most kennel club websites.

This disorder is autosomal recessive, meaning two copies of the variant are needed for a dog to be at an elevated risk for being diagnosed with the condition. A carrier dog with one copy of the Hereditary Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis, Type 1 variant can be safely bred with a clear dog with no copies of the Hereditary Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis, Type 1 variant. About half of the puppies will have one copy (carriers) and half will have no copies of the variant. Furthermore, a dog with two copies of the Hereditary Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis, Type 1 variant can be safely bred with a clear dog. The resulting puppies will all be carriers. Puppies in a litter which is expected to contain carriers should be tested prior to breeding. Carrier to carrier matings are not advised as the resulting litter may contain affected puppies. Please note: It is possible that disorder signs similar to the ones associated with this CaOx1 variant could develop due to a different genetic or clinical cause.

Technical Details

Technical details are not available at this moment.