Present at birth
For X-linked recessive disorders, the genetic variant is found on the X chromosome. Female dogs must have two copies of the variant to be at risk of developing the condition, whereas male dogs only need one copy to be at risk. Males and females with any copies of the variant may pass the disorder-associated variant to their puppies if bred.
At risk dogs are highly likely to show signs of this disease in their lifetime.
Partner with your veterinarian to make a plan regarding your dog’s well-being, including any insights provided through genetic testing. If your pet is at risk or is showing signs of this disorder, then the first step is to speak with your veterinarian.
Blood coagulation is a complex process. Factor VIII is one of the proteins necessary for the blood coagulation process and a deficiency of this protein causes hemophilia A in an affected dog. Clinical signs of hemophilia A vary depending on the activity of factor VIII in the blood. Specific factor assay may be measured by a reference laboratory. Hematomas or abdominal bleeding without apparent reason may be observed in a severely affected dog. If untreated, the disorder can lead to death caused by bleeding. The condition is usually more severe in large, active dogs. Prior to surgery or invasive procedures, a prothrombin (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) should be measured. Additional supportive measures, including transfusions, may be necessary.
Exceptionally excessive and prolonged bleeding may be observed during shedding of deciduous teeth, routine surgeries, and even minor traumas. Prior to surgery or invasive procedures, a prothrombin (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) should be measured. Additional supportive measures, including transfusions, may be necessary. Affected dogs should be monitored closely for excessive and prolonged bleeding during and after any required surgical procedures or after any trauma. Transfusions of cryoprecipitate or fresh-frozen plasma should be provided as necessary to ensure proper clotting if other means are unsuccessful.
There are many responsibilities to consider when breeding dogs. Regardless of test results it is important that your dog is in good general health and that you are in a position to care for the puppies if new responsible owners are not found. For first time or novice breeders, advice can be found at most kennel club websites.
This disorder is X-linked recessive, meaning the genetic variant is found on the X chromosome. Given males only have one X chromosome, a single affected copy will increase the risk of being diagnosed with the disorder. Females typically require two copies to be at an elevated risk. Use of dogs with one or two copies of the variant is not recommended for breeding as there is a risk that the resulting litter will contain affected puppies. Please note: It is possible that clinical signs similar to the ones caused by this variant could develop due to a different genetic or clinical cause.
All coordinates reference CanFam3.1
Lozier J, Kloos M, Merricks E, Lemoine N, Whitford M, Raymer R, Bellinger D, Nichols T. Severe Hemophilia A in a Male Old English Sheep Dog with a C→T Transition that Created a Premature Stop Codon in Factor VIII. Comp Med. 2016;66(5):405-411. View the article