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Canine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (CLAD), type III

Canine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (CLAD) is a disease causing fever, mucosal hemorrhaging, marked dental disease, poor wound healing, and lameness.

Key Signs

Persistent leukocytosis, Pyrexia, Marked periodontal disease, Lameness, Increased mucosal hemorrhages, Impaired wound healing

Age of Onset

0 to 2 yrs

Juvenile onset


Autosomal Recessive

For autosomal recessive disorders, dogs with two copies of the variant are at risk of developing the condition. Dogs with one copy of the variant are considered carriers and are usually not at risk of developing the disorder. However, carriers of some complex variants grouped in this category may be associated with a low risk of developing the disorder. Individuals with one or two copies may pass the disorder-associated variant to their puppies if bred.

Likelihood of the Condition

High likelihood

At risk dogs are highly likely to show signs of this disease in their lifetime.

What to Do

Here’s how to care for a dog with CLAD

Partner with your veterinarian to make a plan regarding your dog’s well-being, including any insights provided through genetic testing. If your pet is at risk or is showing signs of this disorder, then the first step is to speak with your veterinarian.

For Veterinarians

Here’s what a vet needs to know about CLAD

CLAD III results from leukocytes being unable to migrate to the site of inflammation and participate in the phagocytosis of pathogens due to impaired activation of beta integrins. Persistent leukocytosis (increased number of leukocytes in the blood) and platelet dysfunction are characteristic for the disorder. The typical onset of clinical signs is at the age of 6 months. Clinical signs include fever (pyrexia), increased mucosal hemorrhages, marked periodontal disease, poor wound healing, and lameness.

Therapy is targeted at treating secondary infections, preventing bleeding episodes, and supportive care. Affected dogs should be monitored closely for excessive and prolonged bleeding during and after any required surgical procedures or after any trauma. Blood or platelet transfusions may be necessary to control episodes of excessive bleeding.

For Breeders

Planning to breed a dog with this genetic variant?

There are many responsibilities to consider when breeding dogs. Regardless of test results it is important that your dog is in good general health and that you are in a position to care for the puppies if new responsible owners are not found. For first time or novice breeders, advice can be found at most kennel club websites.

This disease is autosomal recessive meaning that two copies of the mutation are needed for disease signs to develop. A carrier dog with one copy of the CLAD mutation can be safely bred with a clear dog with no copies of the CLAD mutation. About half of the puppies will have one copy (carriers) and half will have no copies of the CLAD mutation. Puppies in a litter which is expected to contain carriers should be tested prior to breeding. Carrier to carrier matings are not advised as the resulting litter may contain affected puppies. Please note: It is possible that disease signs similar to the ones caused by the CLAD mutation could develop due to a different genetic or clinical cause.

Technical Details

Variant Insertion
Chromosome 18
Coordinate Start 52,835,933
Coordinate End 52,835,934

All coordinates reference CanFam3.1

References & Credit

Credit to our scientific colleagues:

Hugo, T. B., & Heading, K. L. (2014). Leucocyte adhesion deficiency III in a mixed-breed dog. Australian Veterinary Journal. View the article