Dental Hypomineralization

Dental Hypomineralization is a disease that causes abnormal mineralization of the teeth, resulting in a brownish discoloration and abnormal wear of the teeth.

Key Signs

Abnormal tooth wear, Pulpitis, Teeth loss, Severe tooth hypomineralization

Age of Onset

0 to 2 yrs

Juvenile onset


Autosomal Recessive

For autosomal recessive disorders, dogs with two copies of the variant are at risk of developing the condition. Dogs with one copy of the variant are considered carriers and are usually not at risk of developing the disorder. However, carriers of some complex variants grouped in this category may be associated with a low risk of developing the disorder. Individuals with one or two copies may pass the disorder-associated variant to their puppies if bred.

Likelihood of the Condition

High likelihood

At risk dogs are highly likely to show signs of this disease in their lifetime.

What to Do

Here’s how to care for a dog with Dental Hypomineralization

Partner with your veterinarian to make a plan regarding your dog’s well-being, including any insights provided through genetic testing. If your pet is at risk or is showing signs of this disorder, then the first step is to speak with your veterinarian.

For Veterinarians

Here’s what a vet needs to know about Dental Hypomineralization

Clinical signs include brownish dental discoloration and abnormal wear of teeth. As the teeth wear, the biting surfaces of the teeth darkens, become dark brown in color; the enamel layer may also show a light brown discoloration and appear dull. The disorder causes severe tooth wear leading to pulp exposure, chronic inflammation of the pulp, and pulpal necrosis. Histologically, dentin of affected dogs has an abnormal structure and the enamel can be slightly hypoplastic.

Affected dogs require regular dental treatment.

For Breeders

Planning to breed a dog with this genetic variant?

There are many responsibilities to consider when breeding dogs. Regardless of test results it is important that your dog is in good general health and that you are in a position to care for the puppies if new responsible owners are not found. For first time or novice breeders, advice can be found at most kennel club websites.

This disease is autosomal recessive meaning that two copies of the mutation are needed for disease signs to be shown. A carrier dog with one copy of the Dental Hypomineralization mutation can be safely bred with a clear dog with no copies of the Dental Hypomineralization mutation. About half of the puppies will have one copy (carriers) and half will have no copies of the Dental Hypomineralization mutation. A dog with two copies of the Dental Hypomineralization mutation can be safely bred with a clear dog. The resulting puppies will all be carriers. Puppies in a litter which is expected to contain carriers should be tested prior to breeding. Carrier to carrier matings are not advised as the resulting litter may contain affected puppies. Please note: It is possible that disease signs similar to the ones caused by the Dental Hypomineralization mutation could develop due to a different genetic or clinical cause.

Technical Details

Gene FAM20C
Variant C>T
Chromosome 6
Coordinate 16,452,327

All coordinates reference CanFam3.1

References & Credit

Credit to our scientific colleagues:

Hytönen, M. K., Arumilli, M., Lappalainen, A. K., Owczarek-Lipska, M., Jagannathan, V., Hundi, S., … Lohi, H. (2016). Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes. PLoS Genetics, 12(5), 1–20. View the article