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Lamellar Ichthyosis

Lamellar Ichthyosis is a skin disorder causing severe thickening and scaling of the skin, leading to secondary bacterial and yeast skin infections.

Key Signs

Large and adherent or loose scales, Bacterial and yeast skin infections

Age of Onset

0 to 2 yrs

Juvenile onset


Autosomal Recessive

For autosomal recessive disorders, dogs with two copies of the variant are at risk of developing the condition. Dogs with one copy of the variant are considered carriers and are usually not at risk of developing the disorder. However, carriers of some complex variants grouped in this category may be associated with a low risk of developing the disorder. Individuals with one or two copies may pass the disorder-associated variant to their puppies if bred.

Likelihood of the Condition

High likelihood

At risk dogs are highly likely to show signs of this disease in their lifetime.

What to Do

Here’s how to care for a dog with Lamellar Ichthyosis

Partner with your veterinarian to make a plan regarding your dog’s well-being, including any insights provided through genetic testing. If your pet is at risk or is showing signs of this disorder, then the first step is to speak with your veterinarian.

For Veterinarians

Here’s what a vet needs to know about Lamellar Ichthyosis

The first signs of LI can be seen in young puppies. Affected dogs have adherent or loose thick, large scales (0.25 - 1 inch, 0.5 - 2 cm) that are either white or tan in color and cover their body. Hyperkeratosis of the footpads and soft nails are also common clinical signs. Affected dogs often have chronic secondary bacterial and yeast infections on their skin.

Affected dogs should be monitored closely for signs of skin infections. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic care depending on the dog's specific clinical signs.

For Breeders

Planning to breed a dog with this genetic variant?

There are many responsibilities to consider when breeding dogs. Regardless of test results it is important that your dog is in good general health and that you are in a position to care for the puppies if new responsible owners are not found. For first time or novice breeders, advice can be found at most kennel club websites.

This disease is autosomal recessive meaning that two copies of the mutation are needed for disease signs to occur. A carrier dog with one copy of the Lamellar Ichthyosis mutation can be safely bred with a clear dog with no copies of the Lamellar Ichthyosis mutation. About half of the puppies will have one copy (carriers) and half will have no copies of the Lamellar Ichthyosis mutation. Puppies in a litter which is expected to contain carriers should be tested prior to breeding. Carrier to carrier matings are not advised as the resulting litter may contain affected puppies. Please note: It is possible that disease signs similar to the ones caused by the Lamellar Ichthyosis mutation could develop due to a different genetic or clinical cause.

Technical Details

Gene TGM1
Variant Insertion
Chromosome 8
Coordinate Start 4,236,321
Coordinate End 4,236,320

All coordinates reference CanFam3.1

References & Credit

Credit to our scientific colleagues:

Credille, K. M., Minor, J. S., Barnhart, K. F., Lee, E., Cox, M. L., Tucker, K. A., … Dunstan, R. W. (2009). Transglutaminase 1-deficient recessive lamellar ichthyosis associated with a LINE-1 insertion in Jack Russell terrier dogs. British Journal of Dermatology, 161(2), 265–272. View the article